**Whether looking to meet or exceed expectations, the reasoning papers are quite different from the arithmetic paper.**

Although it is essential to have arithmetic skills in place in order to succeed on these papers, it is very much about how to select and apply appropriate calculations, not just the calculations themselves.

When time allows us to consider questions from the reasoning papers, learning consists of:

- Estimating
- Identifying necessary calculations
- Drawing the problem using the Shanghai Bar Method where appropriate
- Finding an answer and proving that you are correct
- Using the inverse (where appropriate) to check your answers
- Finding alternative ways to answer the question
- Convincing peers that your answer is correct